Tasgheer

Tasgheer comes from the word

صغَّر يُصَّغِر التَّصْغِيْر
meaning to belittle or decrease. Its opposite is كَبَّر and comes under study of Sarf.


Oops did I hurl a technical Jargon at you !!! :/
Don’t worry lemme take a step back and refresh the definition of


Sarf

In Sarf, we study the word itself NOT the word in the sentence

i.e. how the word changes without looking at the sentence.


And since we are at it let me introduce its cousin, i.e.


Nahw

In Nahw, we study the word in the sentence.

i.e. How this word is affected OR affected other words in the sentence. Example how the use of انّ changes the sentence and so on …


But a burning question that we all want an answer of is …

Why do we use Tasgheer?

Reason 1
عندما نتكلم عن شيء صغير
Suppose we want to say small book, we can either say, كتابٌ صغير Or its Tasgheer form كُتيّب.


But how we came up with this construction.
Have patience I will add details :)


Reason 2
التحقير
When we want to insult someone/something, we can use Tasgheer.


So in place of addressing a man by رجُل we say رُجيل meaning you are a small man … lol


Reason 3
التَّحَبُّب
When we are addressing someone we like/love e.g. our son, spouse etc, we can use Tasgheer.

So in place of addressing a kid by طِفْل we say طُفيل


Reason 4
تقريب الزمان والمكان
Sometimes we use it for showing the nearness of time Or place.
For example to show that its just right before Asr i.e. a few moments before Asr we will say قُبَيْل العصر instead of قَبل العصر. As قَبل العصر may be used for 2 hours before Asr


Similarly, to mean right before Masjid we say قُبَيْل المسجد instead of قبل المسجد.


Reason 5
التعظيم
Rarely we use Tasgheer for التعظيم.
For exammple addressing a man (رجُل) but calling him رُجيل out of respect.


That covers all the reasons I guess.

Reason to use Tasgheer
Moving on !!! Lets look into

Conditions required by an Ism to make it’s Tasgheer


Above are the two major rules. Now we will learn

How to make Tasgheer

To make Tasgheer, there are multiple forms (صيغ) in Arabic language. Let’s look into it one by one beginning with


فُعَيْل

This form is used in following categories,
Category 1 Three letters Ism (الاسم الثلاثي)


Category 2 Three letters feminine Ism


Category 3 Three letters Ism with second letter as Alif


Category 4 Three letter Isms ending with ة


Category 5 Four letters Ism where second letter is Alif (اسم رباعي ثاني حرف فيه ألف)


Category 6 Four letters Ism where third letter is Alif


Category 7 Five letters Ism where fourth letter is Alif


Category 8 Five letters Isms
Category 8a If it has extra letters

Category 8b If all letters are Original/Asl letters


Side Note By extra letters I mean the letters that we add in three lettered verb to make form II, from III … form X etc (verb forms). For e.g. خرج is three lettered verb and all its letters are original. To make it form IV we add extra أ in front i.e. أخرج and for form X we add ا س ت i.e. استخرج.
There are only 10 extra letters, which are all letters of the word سألتمونيها


Category 9 Five letters Isms of form فعلان
Category 9a If it is Munsarif e.g. سِرْحانٌ

Category 9b If it is NOT Munsarif e.g. عثمانُ


Category 10 Six letter Isms


Category 11 Two letter Isms


فُعَيعِل

This form is used in following category,
Category 1 Five letters Isms
Category 1a If it has extra letters

Category 1b If all letters are Original/Asl letters

Exceptional Tasgheer


Conclusion
That’s all folks I tried to organise the rules of Tasgheer to the best of my capabilites with proper explanations. But if you think that you are not convinced with the reasoning provided above, then it is what it is because That is how Arabs said it !!!.

Reference

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